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Aperture Priority vs. Shutter Speed Priority: Which Is Better?

Aperture priority mode on a Sony A7III mirrorless camera

Starting your photography journey? Aperture priority mode often emerges as the recommended starting point for beginners. Why? It significantly influences depth of field, a key element in controlling the aesthetic and focus of your images.

This camera mode provides a visually intuitive method for newcomers to grasp the impact of their settings adjustments. In contrast, shutter speed priority impacts motion blur and exposure time, concepts that might be less immediately impactful to your compositions.

This article delves into the aperture priority vs. shutter speed priority debate, unpacking why aperture control can be an essential first step in mastering photography.

Understanding Aperture Priority Mode

Aperture Priority mode, often denoted as “A” or “Av” on your camera dial, grants you control over the aperture, or the lens diaphragm’s opening size. 

Aperture Priority camera mode on Sony 7C
Aperture Priority camera mode on Sony 7C

This setting is pivotal because it directly influences two crucial aspects of your photographs: depth of field and exposure.

  • Depth of Field (DoF): Aperture size determines the DoF, which is the extent of your scene in sharp focus. A wide aperture (low f-number) yields a shallow DoF, blurring the background and focusing attention on your subject. A narrow aperture (high f-number) sharpens both foreground and background, ideal for landscape photography.
  • Exposure: Aperture size affects the amount of light that reaches the sensor. A wide aperture allows more light, brightening your photo. Conversely, a narrow aperture reduces light, darkening the image.

Tips for Using Aperture Priority Mode

  • Start with Portraits: Use a wide aperture (e.g., f/1.8) to isolate your subject from the background with a soft blur, creating a professional look.
  • Landscape Photography: Opt for a narrow aperture (e.g., f/16) to ensure both the foreground and the distant scenery are in sharp focus.
  • Lighting Conditions: In low light, a wider aperture (e.g., f/1.8) can capture more light. Remember, your camera will automatically adjust the shutter speed to balance the exposure.

Practical Exercises to Master Aperture Priority Mode

  • Experiment with Depth of Field: Find a subject and position it with varying backgrounds. Take multiple shots at different apertures (e.g., f/2.8, f/8, f/16) to observe how the background’s focus changes.
  • Play with Light: Shoot the same scene at different times of the day or in varied lighting conditions using the same aperture setting. Notice how the camera adjusts shutter speed and how it impacts your photo’s mood.

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General Rules of Thumb for Using Aperture Priority Mode

  • A lower f-number (e.g., f/2.8) means more background blur and more light entering the camera. It’s great for portraits or highlighting a subject.
  • A higher f-number (e.g., f/16) results in more of the scene in focus and less light coming through. Ideal for landscapes or group shots where clarity throughout is desired.
  • Always monitor your camera’s shutter speed adjustments in Aperture Priority mode. If it drops too low (e.g., below 1/60th of a second), your photos may become blurry from hand shake unless using a tripod.

By engaging in these practices and keeping these recommendations in mind, you’ll quickly grasp how aperture settings influence your photographs.

Understanding Shutter Speed Priority Mode

Shutter Speed Priority mode, denoted as Tv (Time value) on some cameras and S on others, is a semi-automatic shooting mode that lets photographers prioritize how long the camera’s shutter stays open. 

This setting is crucial for controlling motion in your photographs. Here’s a closer look at how it works, its impact on your photos, and some tips for using it effectively.

Shutter priority camera mode on Sony 7C
Shutter priority camera mode on Sony 7C

What Shutter Speed Priority Controls

Shutter speed affects how motion is captured, making it possible to freeze fast action or blur movement for a sense of motion. It also influences exposure, with longer exposures letting in more light and shorter exposures reducing it.

Impact of Shutter Speed on Photos

By choosing a fast shutter speed, you can freeze rapid movements, such as a bird in flight or a sports player in action. A slower shutter speed, meanwhile, can blur moving water or create light trails at night, adding dynamism and drama to your shots.

Recommendations and Rules of Thumb

  • For freezing motion, start with a shutter speed of at least 1/500th of a second and adjust based on the speed of your subject.
  • To create motion blur, experiment with shutter speeds slower than 1/60th of a second. The exact speed depends on the effect you’re aiming for and how fast your subject is moving.
  • Remember, slower shutter speeds may require a tripod to prevent camera shake and ensure sharp images.

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Practical Exercises for Mastering Shutter Speed

  • Freezing Motion: Try capturing a moving subject, like a running pet or a flowing fountain, using a fast shutter speed. Experiment with different speeds to see how it affects the motion freeze.
  • Capturing Motion Blur: Find a moving subject, such as a busy street or a spinning object. Use a slow shutter speed to blur the motion. Play with various speeds to understand the extent of blur each produces.
  • Light Trails: In a low-light setting, use a slow shutter speed to capture light trails from moving vehicles. Start with a few seconds and adjust to get the desired effect.

Shutter Speed Priority offers a powerful way to control how motion is depicted in your photographs, adding a creative dimension to your work. By understanding and experimenting with different shutter speeds, you can dramatically alter the mood and message of your images, making this setting a valuable tool in your photography arsenal.

5 Reasons to Learn Photography with Aperture Priority Mode

1. Master Depth of Field

Aperture Priority mode is your gateway to understanding and mastering depth of field (DoF). It allows you to control the amount of your photo that appears sharp, from creating stunning portraits with creamy, blurred backgrounds to capturing landscapes in sharp focus from foreground to horizon. This control is essential for adding depth and dimension to your images.

Black and white portrait photo of a young boy with a shallow depth of field
Portrait photo of my son with a shallow depth of field. Camera settings: f/2.8, 1/320sec, ISO 160

2. Immediate Visual Feedback

Unlike other settings that might require a bit of abstraction to understand their effects, changes in aperture provide immediate, visible feedback. Adjust the aperture, and you can instantly see the difference in the depth of field on your camera’s screen or viewfinder. This immediate feedback is invaluable for beginners, making the learning process intuitive and rewarding.

3. Low Light Advantages

Learning to adjust the aperture enables you to take better photos in low light conditions without relying heavily on flash or increasing ISO. By opening up the aperture, you allow more light to reach the sensor, reducing the need for artificial lighting and minimizing grain in your photos.

Black and white photo of a gondolier in Venice

4. Creative Control and Flexibility

Starting with Aperture Priority mode encourages you to think creatively about your composition and the story you want to tell with your photograph. Do you want to isolate your subject or show it in context? Aperture Priority mode gives you the flexibility to make these creative decisions on the fly, offering a perfect blend of control and creativity.

5. Simplified Exposure Management

By focusing on aperture adjustments, you simplify the process of managing exposure. The camera automatically selects the shutter speed to match your aperture choice, ensuring well-exposed photos. 

This simplification allows you to concentrate on the artistic side of photography, such as composition and framing, while still achieving technically sound results.

Starting with Aperture Priority mode not only lays a solid foundation for technical skills in photography but also empowers you with creative control from day one. It demystifies the complex interaction of light and lens, making photography more accessible and enjoyable for beginners.

FAQ: Aperture Priority vs. Shutter Speed Priority Mode

Beginner photographers are often advised to start with Aperture Priority mode. It helps understand depth of field and offers a balanced mix of creative control and technical learning.

Aperture Priority is generally preferred for street photography to control depth of field and react quickly to changing scenes. However, Shutter Priority can be useful for capturing movement without blur.

The main disadvantages include potential issues with motion blur if the camera selects a slow shutter speed in low light, and less control over freezing fast action compared to Shutter Priority mode.

Shutter Priority is perfect for action shots, sports photography, capturing wildlife, or any situation where you need to manage how motion is depicted, from freezing action to creating motion blur.

Professional photographers shoot in a variety of modes, including Manual, Aperture Priority, and Shutter Priority, depending on the situation and their creative goals. Many prefer Manual for total control.

Using auto ISO in Aperture Priority can be beneficial, especially in changing light conditions. It allows the camera to adjust ISO automatically, ensuring proper exposure without manual intervention.

In Shutter Priority mode, you choose the shutter speed while the camera selects the aperture. However, you indirectly influence aperture by adjusting ISO or exposure compensation.

A higher aperture (smaller f-number) increases the depth of field, making more of the image appear sharp. However, the sharpest image often occurs at mid-range apertures, due to diffraction at very high apertures.

Conclusion: Aperture Priority vs. Shutter Speed Priority Mode

Choosing between Aperture Priority and Shutter Speed Priority mode is a foundational decision in photography, especially for beginners.

Aperture Priority mode emerges as the ideal starting point, offering an intuitive understanding of depth of field, creative control, and simplified exposure management. It lays the groundwork for mastering both the technical and artistic sides of photography, encouraging experimentation and growth.

As you progress, remember that the journey in photography is about finding your unique voice through the lens. Start with Aperture Priority, explore, and let your creativity flourish.

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Aleksandrs Karevs

Aleksandrs Karevs

Hi, my name is Aleksandrs and I am a full-stack digital marketer passionate about digital photography. In my free time, I enjoy taking photos with my everyday companion – FUJIFILM X100V. Read full story here.

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Aleksandrs Karevs OHMYCAMERA Founder & Author


Hi, my name is Aleksandr and I am a full-stack digital marketer from Riga, Latvia. In 2018 I became obsessed with photography and decided to create this blog to share my knowledge about both photography and marketing. In my free time, I enjoy taking photos with my everyday companion – FUJIFILM X100V.

Aleksandrs Karevs OHMYCAMERA Founder & Author


Hi, my name is Aleksandr and I am a full-stack digital marketer from Riga, Latvia. In 2018 I became obsessed with photography and decided to create this blog to share my knowledge about both photography and marketing. In my free time, I enjoy taking photos with my everyday companion – FUJIFILM X100V.

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